Self-Injurious Behaviors

Books
  • Alderman, T. (1997). The Scarred Soul: Understanding and Ending Self Inflicted Violence. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
  • Bateman, A. and Fonagy, P. (2004). Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Mentalization Based Treatment.
  • Bateman, A. and Fonagy, P. (2006). Mentalization-based Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Practical Guide.
  • Bateman, A. and Fonagy, P. (Ed). (2011). The Handbook of Mentalizing in Mental Health Practice.
  • Christensen R. and Christensen E. (2009). Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills, 101 Mindfulness Exercises and Other Fun Activities for Children and Adolescents.
  • Claes, L., & Muehlenkamp, J. J. (Eds.). (2014). Non-suicidal self-injury in eating disorders: Advancement in etiology and treatment. New York: Springer.
  • Clark, J. & Henslin, E. (2007). Inside a cutter’s mind: Understanding and helping those who self-injure. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress.
  • Cohen, B., Barnes, M. & Rankin, A. (1995). Managing traumatic stress through art. Sidran Press.
  • Conterio, K., Lader, W. & Bloom, K. (1998). Bodily harm: The breakthrough healing program. New York: Hyperion.
  • Eich, J. (2015). Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training with Adolescents: A Practical Workbook for Therapists, Teens & Parents. Eau Claire, WI: Pesi Publishing and Media.
  • Ellis, T. & Newman, C. (2008). Choosing to Live: How to Defeat Suicide Through Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.
  • Favazza, A. (1996). Bodies under siege: Self-mutilation and body modification in culture and psychiatry. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Gratz, K. & Chapman, A. (2009). Freedom from self-harm: Overcoming self-injury with skills from DBT and other treatments. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
  • Hall, K. & Cook, M. (2011). The Power of Validation: Arming Your Child Against Bullying, Peer Pressure, Addiction, Self-Harm, and Out-of-Control Emotions. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
  • Hawton, K., Rodham, K., Evans, E. (2006). By their own young hand: Deliberate self-harm and suicide ideas in adolescence. Kingsley: London.
  • Hollander, M. (2008). Helping teens who cut: Understanding and ending self-injury. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • King, C., Ewell- Foster, C., & Rogalski, K. (2013). Teen suicide risk: a practitioner guide to screening, assessment, and management. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Klonsky, D.E., Muehlenkamp, J.J., Lewis, S.P., & Walsh, B. (2011). Nonsuicidal self-Injury, in the series advances in psychotherapy, evidence based practice. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe Publishing.
  • Klott, J. & Jongsma, A. (2004). The Suicide and Homicide Risk Assessment & Prevention Treatment Planner. New Jersey: John Wiley.
  • Lader, W., Conterio, K. & Bloom, J.K. (1998). Bodily harm: The breakthrough healing program for self-injurers. New York, NY: Hyperion.
  • Levitt, J.L., Sansone, R.A., & Cohn, L. (Eds.). (2004). Self-harm behavior and eating disorders: Dynamics, assessment and treatment. New York, NY: Brunner- Routledge.
  • Linehan, M. (1993). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder.
  • Linehan, M. (2014). Skills Training Manual for Treating Borderline Personality Disorder 2nd Ed. Guilford Press.
  • McKay, M., Wood, J. & Brantley, J. (2007).The Dialectical behavior therapy skills workbook. Oakland, CA: New harbinger Publications.
  • McKaMcVey-Nobel, M., Khemlani-Patel, S. & Nezirouglu, F. (2006). When your child is cutting. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publishing.
  • Miller, A. (2006). Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents.
  • Miller, A. Rathus, J., Linehan, M., and Swenson, C.H. (2006). Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents.
  • Miller, A., Rathus, J., & Linehan, M. (2007). Dialectical Behavioral Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents. New York: Guiford Press.
  • Miller, D.N. & Brock, S.E. (2009). Identifying, assessing, and treating self-injury at school. New York: Springer.
  • Moonshine, C. (2009).Acquiring Competency & Achieving Proficiency with Dialectical Behavior Therapy Vol I. Eau Claire, WI: Pesi Publishing and Media.
  • Moonshine, C. (2012).Acquiring Competency & Achieving Proficiency with Dialectical Behavior Therapy Vol II. Eau Claire, WI: Pesi Publishing and Media.
  • Nixon, M.K., & Heath, N.L. (Eds.). (2008). Self-injury in youth: The essential guide to assessment and intervention. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, Inc.
  • Nock, M.K. (Ed.). (2009). Understanding nonsuicidal self-injury: Origins, assessment, and treatment. Washington D.C: American Psychological Association.
  • Pederson, L. & Perderson, C. (2012). The expanded dialectical behavior therapy skills training manual: Practical DBT self-help, and individual…Premier Publishing & Media.
  • Rathus, J., Miller, A. & Linehan, M. (2014). DBT Skills Manual for Adolescents.
  • Redheffer, J. & Brecht, S. (2007). Beyond the razor’s edge: A journey of healing and hope beyond self-injury. Chicago: Virgin Ink Press.
  • Ross, C. (2000). The trauma model. Richardson, TX: Manitou Communications.
  • Russell, K & Kastner, L. (2013). Wise-Minded Parenting:7 Essentials for Raising Successful Tweens + Teens. :Parent Map.
  • Sameroff, A.J. (1993). Models of development and developmental Risk. In C. H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of Infant Mental Health. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Selekman, M. D. (2006). Working with self-harming adolescents: A collaborative, strengths-based therapy approach. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Selekman, M. D. (2009). The adolescent & young adult self-harming treatment manual: A collaborative strengths-based brief therapy approach. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Selekman, M., & Beyebach, M. (2013). Changing self-destructive habits: Pathways to solutions with couples and families. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Shapiro, L. (2008). Stopping the Pain: A Workbook for Teens Who Cut and Self. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publishing.
  • Shneidman, E. & Collins, J. (2004). Autopsy of a Suicidal Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Strong, M. (1998). A Bright red scream: Self-mutilation and the language of pain. New York: Penguin Publishing.
  • Sutton, J. (2005). Healing the hurt within. Oxford, UK: How To Books.
  • Van Dijk, S. (2011). Don’t Let Your Emotions Run Your Life for Teens: Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills for Helping You Manage Mood.
  • Walsh, B. W. (2012). Treating self-injury, second edition: A practical guide. New York: Guilford Press.

Websites

Video

Marsha Linehan's personal self injury story: Article, Video- Marsha Linehan's personal story about self injury, https://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/23/health/23lives.html?pagewanted=all


Journal Articles
  • Agnew, V. (2012). Dialectical behavior therapy with high risk male adolescents and their families. ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2012.
  • L., Gratz, K.L., & Brown, M.Z. (2006) Solving the puzzle of deliberate self-harm: The experiential avoidance model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 371- 394.
  • Anderson, N.L., & Crowther, J.H. (2012). Using the experiential avoidance model of non-suicidal self-injury: Understanding who stops and who continues. Archives of Suicide Research, 16: 124-134.
  • Andover, M. S., & Gibb, B. E. (2010). Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatry research, 178 (1), 101-105.
  • Ash, P. (2007). Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 37(10), 675-678.
  • Ballard, E., Bosk, A., Pao, M. (2010). Invited commentary: Understanding brain mechanisms of pain processing in adolescents’ non-suicidal self-injury. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 327-334.
  • Bhugra, D., Singh, J., Fellow-Smith, E., & Bayliss, C. (2002). Deliberate self-harm in adolescents. A case study among two ethnic groups. European Journal of Psychiatry, 16(3), 145-151.
  • Boyce, P., Oakley-Browne, M.A., & Hatcher, S. (2001). The problem of deliberate self-harm. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 14, 107-111.
  • Briere, J., & Gil, E. (1998). Self-mutilation in clinical and general population samples: Prevalence, correlates, and functions. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 609-620
  • Brodsky, B.S., Cloitre, M., & Dulit, R. A. (1995). Relationship of dissociation to self-mutilation and childhood abuse in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(12), 1788-1792.
  • Chapman, A., Gratz, K.L., Brown, M.Z. (2006). Solving the puzzle of deliberate self-harm: The experiential avoidance model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 371-391.
  • Bryant, C.E., & Harder, J. (2008). Treating suicidality in African American adolescents with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 25, 1-9.
  • Conason, A.H., Oquendo, M.A., & Sher, L. (2006). Psychotherapy in the treatment of alcohol and substance abusing adolescents with suicidal behavior. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 18, 9-13.
  • Daine, K., Hawton, K., Singaravelu, V., Stewart, A., Simkin, S., & Montgomery, P., (2013).The power of the web: A systematic review of studies of the influence of the internet on self-harm and suicide in young people. PLoS ONE 8 (10).
  • DiClemente, R.J., Ponton, L.E., & Hartley, D. (1991). Prevalence and correlates of cutting behavior: Risk for HIV transmission. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 735-738.
  • DiLazzero, D.B. (2003). Addressing self-injury in a college environment: A psychoeducational program. University of Hartford, Hartford.
  • Duggan, J.M.,Toste, J.R., & Heath, N.L. (2013) An examination of the relationship between body image factors and non-suicidal self-injury in young adults: The mediating influence of emotion dysregulation. Psychiatry Research, 206, 256-264.
  • DuRant, D.H., Rich, M., Emans, S.J., Rome , E.S., Allred, E., Woods, E.R., et al. (2003). The relationship between watching professional wrestling on television and engaging in health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health,30,114.
  • FACTIVA [database online]. Dow Jones Reuters Business Interactive LLC. Accessed April 10, 2006.
  • Farber, S. K. (1997). Self-medication, traumatic reenactment, and somatic expression in bulimic and self-mutilating behavior. Clinical Social Work Journal, 25(1), 87-106.
  • Favazza, A.R., & Conterio, K. (1989). Female habitual self-mutilators. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 283-289.
  • Franklin, J.C., Aaron, R.V., Arthur, M.S., Shorkey, S.P., Prinstein, M.J. (2012). Nonsuicidal self-injury and diminished pain perception: the role of emotion regulation. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 53, 691-700.
  • Garrison, C.Z., Addy, C. L., McKeown, R.E., & Cuffe, S.P. (1993). Nonsuicidal physically self-damaging acts in adolescents. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 2, 339-352.
  • Gonzales, A.H., & Bergstrom, L. (2013). Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) interventions. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 26, 124-130.
  • Gratz, K.L., & Chapman, A.L. (2007).The Role of Emotional Responding and Childhood Maltreatment in the Development and Maintenance of Deliberate Self-Harm Among Male Undergraduates, Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8, 1-14.
  • Gratz, K.L. (2001). Measurement of deliberate self-harm: Preliminary data on the deliberate self-harm inventory. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23(4), 253-263.
  • Gratz, K.L., Conrad, S.D., & Roemer, L. (2002). Risk factors for deliberate self-harm among college students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 128-140.
  • Groschwitz, R.C., & Plener, P.L. (2012). The neurobiology of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI): A review. Suicidology Online, 3, 24-32.
  • Hamza, C. A., Stewart, S. L., & Willoughby, T. (2012). Examining the link between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior: A review of the literature and an integrated model. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 482-495.
  • Hawton, K., Fagg, J., Simkin, S., Bale, E., & Bond, A. (2000). Deliberate self-harm in Oxford, 1985-1995. Journal of Adolescence, 23(1), 47-55.
  • Heath, N.L., Toste, J.R., & Beettam, E. (2006). “I am not well-equipped”: High school teachers’ perceptions of self-injury. Canadian Journal of School Psychology 21(1-2), 73-92.
  • Hilt, L.M., Hanson, J.L., & Pollak, S.D. (2011). Emotion Dysregulation, Encyclopedia of Adolescence, 3, 160-169.
  • Hooley, J.M., St. Germain, S.A. (2013). Nonsuicidal self-injury, pain, and self-criticism: Does changing self-worth change pain endurance in people who engage in self-injury? Clinical Psychological Science, online source.
  • Huesmann, R.L., Moise-Titus, J. Podolski C.L., & Eron, L.D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977 – 1992. Developmental Psychology, 39(2).
  • Jacobson, C.M. & Gould, M. (2007). The epidemiology and phenomenology of non-suicidal self-injurious behavior among adolescents: A critical review of the literature. Archives of Suicide Research, 11, 129-147.
  • Jarvi, S., Jackson, B., Swenson, L. & Crawford, H. (2013). The impact of social contagion on non-suicidal self-injury: A review of the literature. Archives of Suicide Research, 17, 1- 19.
  • James, A. (1999). Resistant depression in childhood and adolescence. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 4, 483-491.
  • Kerr, P.L., Muehlenkamp, J.L., & Turner, J.M. (2010). Nonsuicidal self-injury: A review of current research for family medicine and primary care physicians. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 23 (2), 240-259.
  • Klomek, A.B & Stanley, B. (2007). Psychosocial treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents. CNS Spectrums, 12, 135-144.
  • Klonsky, E.D., Oltmanns, T.F., & Turkheimer, E. (2003). Deliberate self-harm in a non-clinical population: Prevalence and psychological correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1501-1508.
  • Klonsky, D.E. (2007). The functions of deliberate self-injury: A review of the evidence. Clinical Psychology Review, 27 (2) 226-239.
  • Klonsky, E.D. (2009). The functions of self-injury in young adults who cut themselves: Clarifying the evidence for affect-regulation. Psychiatry Research, 166, 260-268.
  • Knox, K.L., Litts, D.A., Talcott, G.W., Feig, J.C., & Caine, E.D. (2003). Risk of suicide and related adverse outcomes after exposure to a suicide prevention programme in the U.S. Air Force: Cohort study. British Medical Journal, 327, 1376-1381.
  • Kokaliari, E. (2004). Deliberate self-injury: An investigation of the prevalence and psychosocial meanings in a non-clinical female college population. Dissertation. Smith College.
  • Kress, V.E., Gibson, D.M., Reynolds, C.A. (2004) Adolescents who self-injure: Implications and strategies for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, February.
  • Lang, C.M. & Sharma-Patel, K. (2011). The relation between childhood maltreatment and self-injury: A review of the literature on conceptualization and intervention. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 12 (1), 23-37.
  • Laye-Gindhu, A. & Schonert-Reichl, K.A. (2005). Nonsuicidal self-harm among community adolescents: Understanding the “whats” and “whys” of self-harm. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(5), 447-457.
  • Levine, M. & Smolak, L. (2005). The prevention of eating problems and eating disorders: Theory, research, and practice. New Jersey: Erlbaum.
  • Lewis, L. M. (2007). No-harm contracts: A review of what we know. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 37(1), 50-57.
  • Lloyed-Richardson, E., Perrine, N., Dieker, L., Kelley, M.L. (2007). Characteristics and functions of non-suicidal self-injury in a community sample of adolescents. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1183-1192.
  • Lynam, D.R, Milich, R, Zimmerman, R., Novak, S. P., Logan , T. K., Martin, C., Leukefeld, C., & Clayton, R. (1999). Project DARE: No effects at 10-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(4).
  • Macklem, G.L. (2008). Emotion dysregulation, Practitioners Guide to Emotion Regulation in School-Aged Children, 13-24.
  • Marshall, H. & Yazdani, A. (1999). Locating culture in accounting for self-harm amongst Asian young women. Journal of Community Applied Social Psychology, 9(6), 413-433.
  • Martin, G., Rozanes, P., Pearce, C., & Allison, S. (1995). Adolescent suicide, depression and family dysfunction. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 92, 336-344.
  • Matthews, P.C. (1968). Epidemic self-injury in an adolescent unit. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 14:125-133.
  • Muehlenkamp, J.J., & Gutierrez, P.M. (2004). An investigation of differences between self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts in a sample of adolescents. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 34, 12-24.
  • Muehlenkamp, J.J., & Brausch, A.M. (2012). Body image as a mediator of non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 35 (1), 1-9.
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2009). Suicide: A major, preventable mental health problem. Retrieved from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/suicide-a-major-preventable-mental-health-problem-fact-sheet/index.shtml
  • Neal, R.D. (2005). Treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Lancet, 366, 933-940.
  • Nock, M.K., & Prinstein, M.J. (2004). A functional approach to the assessment of self-mutative behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(5), 885-890.
  • Nock, M.K., Joiner, T.E., Gordon, K.H., Lloyd-Richardson, E., & Prinstein, M.J. (2006). Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts. Psychiatry Research, 144(1), 65-72. M
  • Polk, E., & Liss, M. (2009). Exploring the motivations behind self injury, Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 22, 233-241.
  • Radcliffe, J. (2004, arch 28). Self-destructive “cutters” live their lives on the edge. Los Angeles Daily News.
  • Robinson, A.L., Mansfield-Green, S., & Lafrance, G. (2014). Disordered eating behaviours in an undergraduate sample: Associations among gender, body mass index, and difficulties in emotion regulation, Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 46, 320-326.
  • Rosen, P.M., & Heard, K.V. (1995). A method for reporting self-harm according to level of injury and location on the body. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 25(3), 381-385.
  • Rosen P.M., Walsh B.W. (1989). Patterns of contagion in self mutilation epidemics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146(5): 656-658.
  • Ross, S., & Heath, N.L. (2003). Two models of adolescent self-mutilation. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 33(3), 277-287.
  • Rutter, M. (1989). Pathways from childhood to adult life. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 23-51.
  • Shneidman, E. (1977). Definition of suicide. Jason Aronson, Incorporated.
  • Skegg, K. (2005). Self-harm. Lancet, 366, 1471-1483.
  • Swannel, S., Martin, G., Page, A., Hasking, O, Hazell, P., Taylor, A., Protani, M. (2012). Child maltreatment, subsequent non-suicidal self-injury and the mediating roles of dissociation, alexithymia, and self-blame. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 572-584.
  • Swannell, Sarah V., Martin, Graham E., Page, Andrew, Hasking, Penelope, St John, Nathan J.,. (2014). Prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury in nonclinical samples: Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta regression. Suicide Life Threat Behavior Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, (2), n/a.
  • Taiminen T.J., Kallio-Soukainen K., Nokso-Kovisto H., Kaljonen A., Helenius H. (1998). Contagion of deliberate self-harm among adolescent inpatients. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(2): 211-217.
  • Tarrier, N., Taylor, K., & Gooding, P. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce suicide behavior: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Behavior Modification, 32, 77-108.
  • Tellides, C. & Harrison, A.M. (2007). Strategic choices in the psychotherapy of a ‘fragile’ patient. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 15, 18-29.
  • Whitlock, J.L., Eckenrode, J.E. & Silverman, D. (2006). The epidemiology of self-injurious behavior in a college population. Pediatrics, 117(6).
  • Whitlock, J.L. & Knox, K. (2007). The relationship between suicide and self-injury in a young adult population. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 161(7).
  • Whitlock, J.L., Muehlenkamp, J., Eckenrode, J. (2008). Variation in non-suicidal self-injury: Identification of latent classes in a community population of young adults. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 37(4). 725-735.
  • Whitlock, J., Eells, G., Cummings, N., & Purington, A. (2009). Nonsuicidal self-injury in college populations: Mental health provider assessment of prevalence and need. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 23(3), 172-183.
  • Whitlock, J.L., Purington, A., Gershkovich, M. (2009). Influence of the media on self injurious behavior. In Understanding non-suicidal self-injury: Current science and practice, edited by M. Nock. American Psychological Association Press. 139-156.
  • Whitlock, J., Muehlenkamp, J., Purington, A., Eckenrode, J., Barreira, J., Abrams, G.B., Marchell, T., Kress, K., Girard, K., Chin, C., Knox, K. (in press) Non-suicidal self-injury in a college population: General trends and sex differences. Journal of American College Health.
  • Whitlock, J., Muehlenkamp, J., Purington, A., Eckenrode, J., Barreira, P., Baral Abrams, G., & Knox, K. (2011). Nonsuicidal self-injury in a college population: General trends and sex differences. Journal of American College Health, 59(8), 691-698.
  • Whitlock, J., Muehlenkamp, J., Eckenrode, J., Purington, A., Barrera, P., Baral-Abrams, G., Kress,V., Grace Martin, K, Smith, E., (2013). Non-suicidal selfinjury as a gateway to suicide in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(4): 486-492.
  • Wilkinson, P., Kelvin, R., Roberts, C., Dubicka, B., & Goodyer, I. (2011). Clinical and psychosocial predictors of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury in the Adolescent Depression Antidepressants and Psychotherapy Trial (ADAPT). American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(5), 495-501.
  • Winchel, R.M. & Stanley, M. (1991). Self-injurious behavior: A review of the behavior and biology of self-mutilation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(3), 306-317.
  • Young People and Self-Harm: A National Inquiry. (2004). What do we already know? Prevalence, risk factors & models of intervention. Retrieved from http://www.selfharmuk.org
  • Young, R., Van Beinum, M., Sweeting, H., & West, P. (2007).Young people who self harm, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 44-49
  • Zetterqvist, M., Lundh, L., Dahlstrom., O., & Svedin, C.G. (2013). Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 759-773.

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